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Linux LVM 逻辑卷扩容

接上文 真机安装 CentOS 7 在安装完毕后,我又给它加了一次硬盘。得益于安装的时候使用了 LVM (Logical Volume Manager) 可以实现不关机扩展当前分区。

LVM 介绍

Lvm

图片来自 Wikimedia Logical Volume Manager (Linux)

  • PV:物理卷,PV处于LVM系统最低层,它可以是整个硬盘,或者与磁盘分区具有相同功能的设备(如RAID),但和基本的物理存储介质相比较,多了与LVM相关管理参数
  • VG:卷组,创建在PV之上,由一个或多个PV组成,可以在VG上创建一个或多个“LVM分区”(逻辑卷),功能类似非LVM系统的物理硬盘
  • LV:逻辑卷,从VG中分割出的一块空间,创建之后其大小可以伸缩,在LV上可以创建文件系统(如/var,/home)
  • PE:物理区域,每一个PV被划分为基本单元(也被称为PE),具有唯一编号的PE是可以被LVM寻址的最小存储单元,默认为4MB

本次扩容就是将设备转换为物理卷,然后将其加入卷组,最后再将卷组的剩余空间划分给逻辑卷

安装硬盘

这一步没啥可说的了吧,直接把硬盘接上主板就行了

系统环境

设备名 大小 状态 所属卷组名
/dev/sdc 500.1 GB 新加盘
/dev/sdb 3000.6 GB 原有数据盘 all
/dev/sda 500.1 GB 原有数据盘 all
/dev/sdd 320.1 GB 系统盘+数据盘 centos all

这里我会将 /dev/sdc 划分进 all 卷组中以扩大它的可用容量

查询磁盘空间信息

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df -H
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Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/centos-root 54G 2.1G 52G 4% /
devtmpfs 889M 0 889M 0% /dev
tmpfs 902M 0 902M 0% /dev/shm
tmpfs 902M 18M 884M 2% /run
tmpfs 902M 0 902M 0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/all-home 3.8T 3.6T 252G 94% /home
/dev/sdd1 1.1G 143M 811M 15% /boot
tmpfs 181M 0 181M 0% /run/user/1000

查询物理卷信息

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sudo pvs
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PV         VG     Fmt  Attr PSize    PFree
/dev/sda1 all lvm2 a-- <465.76g 0
/dev/sdb1 all lvm2 a-- <2.73t 0
/dev/sdd2 all lvm2 a-- <245.08g 0
/dev/sdd3 centos lvm2 a-- 52.00g 4.00m

查询硬盘分区表情况

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sudo fdisk -l
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Disk /dev/sdc: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes, 976773168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x95fe95fe

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdc1 * 4096 976773119 488384512 7 HPFS/NTFS/exFAT

Disk /dev/sdd: 320.1 GB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x00084660

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdd1 * 2048 2099199 1048576 83 Linux
/dev/sdd2 2099200 516073471 256987136 8e Linux LVM
/dev/sdd3 516073472 625141759 54534144 8e Linux LVM
WARNING: fdisk GPT support is currently new, and therefore in an experimental phase. Use at your own discretion.

Disk /dev/sdb: 3000.6 GB, 3000592982016 bytes, 5860533168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk label type: gpt
Disk identifier: BDF3367A-EECA-4A93-BE0B-10D867E87AF1


# Start End Size Type Name
1 2048 5860532223 2.7T Linux LVM

Disk /dev/sda: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes, 976773168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x000c3c53

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 2048 976773119 488385536 8e Linux LVM

Disk /dev/mapper/centos-root: 53.7 GB, 53687091200 bytes, 104857600 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/centos-swap: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes, 4194304 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/all-home: 3763.8 GB, 3763842580480 bytes, 7351255040 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes

开始扩展

首先将 /dev/sdc1 转换为物理卷(PV)

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sudo pvcreate /dev/sdc1 /dev/sde
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WARNING: ext4 signature detected on /dev/sdc1 at offset 1080. Wipe it? [y/n]: y
Wiping ext4 signature on /dev/sdc1.
Physical volume "/dev/sdc1" successfully created.

查看物理卷(PV)信息

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sudo pvs
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PV         VG     Fmt  Attr PSize    PFree   
/dev/sda1 all lvm2 a-- <465.76g 0
/dev/sdb1 all lvm2 a-- <2.73t 0
/dev/sdc1 lvm2 --- <465.76g <465.76g
/dev/sdd2 all lvm2 a-- <245.08g 0
/dev/sdd3 centos lvm2 a-- 52.00g 4.00m

将物理卷加入卷组(VG) all

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sudo vgextend all /dev/sdc1
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Volume group "all" successfully extended

查看物理卷(PV)信息

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sudo pvs
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PV         VG     Fmt  Attr PSize    PFree   
/dev/sda1 all lvm2 a-- <465.76g 0
/dev/sdb1 all lvm2 a-- <2.73t 0
/dev/sdc1 all lvm2 a-- <465.76g <465.76g
/dev/sdd2 all lvm2 a-- <245.08g 0
/dev/sdd3 centos lvm2 a-- 52.00g 4.00m

查看逻辑卷(LV)信息

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sudo lvs
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LV   VG     Attr       LSize  Pool Origin Data%  Meta%  Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert
home all -wi-ao---- 3.42t
root centos -wi-ao---- 50.00g
swap centos -wi-ao---- 2.00g

看起来容量并没有变大,这是因为还需要将卷组中的空闲空间扩展到 /home

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sudo lvextend -L +465.75g /dev/mapper/all-home
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Size of logical volume all/home changed from 3.42 TiB (897370 extents) to <3.88 TiB (1016602 extents).
Logical volume all/home successfully resized.

查看逻辑卷信息(LV),可以发现空间已经变大了

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sudo lvs
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LV   VG     Attr       LSize  Pool Origin Data%  Meta%  Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert
home all -wi-ao---- <3.88t
root centos -wi-ao---- 50.00g
swap centos -wi-ao---- 2.00g

查看物理卷(PV)信息,可以发现物理卷的可用空间已经变小了

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sudo pvs
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PV         VG     Fmt  Attr PSize    PFree
/dev/sda1 all lvm2 a-- <465.76g 0
/dev/sdb1 all lvm2 a-- <2.73t 0
/dev/sdc1 all lvm2 a-- <465.76g 8.00m
/dev/sdd2 all lvm2 a-- <245.08g 0
/dev/sdd3 centos lvm2 a-- 52.00g 4.00m

使扩容生效 xfs_groufs 针对 xfs文件系统

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mount
sudo xfs_growfs /dev/mapper/all-home

查看剩余空间信息

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df -h
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Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/centos-root 50G 2.0G 49G 4% /
devtmpfs 848M 0 848M 0% /dev
tmpfs 860M 0 860M 0% /dev/shm
tmpfs 860M 17M 843M 2% /run
tmpfs 860M 0 860M 0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/all-home 3.9T 3.2T 701G 83% /home
/dev/sdd1 976M 136M 774M 15% /boot
tmpfs 172M 0 172M 0% /run/user/1000

/home 空间变大了0.4T,扩容成功

参考

https://blog.csdn.net/yaofengyaofeng/article/details/82353282

https://blog.csdn.net/u012439646/article/details/73380197

http://lzw.me/a/linux-lvm.html

https://blog.csdn.net/youjin/article/details/79137203

https://blog.csdn.net/qq_27281257/article/details/81603410

https://blog.csdn.net/weixin_42350212/article/details/80570211

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